Selasa, 29 Juli 2008

Revising Economic Theory

By: Septa Muktamar

In approach of economics of there are two theory approach, that is theory of normative and positive theory. Theory Normative make the point best to do something pursuant to premise, norm or standard, positive theory try to explain or real prediction phenomenon and test it in empiric.

In this time the many people assume that theory normative do not deflect taught again since there are disgruntled to theory normative and also disagree with text book of economics. Textbook of America becoming reference learn its all of us is positive, imprecise so that presumably comprehend economic behavior of Indonesian nation solely use economic theory of west of but having to by using economic theory of Indonesia developed from researches inductive-empiric in Indonesia by self.

Real example of mistake of applying of economics theory is in the field of macroeconomics. Macroeconomics such as those which during the time be taught according to at formula of mathematics of Keynes Y=C+I+G, is slipping if us very trust in the equation such as happened in Indonesia. According to Mubyarto ( 2003), first C, is not be full consist of goods consume once used up but as does the motorbike, agriculture appliance, or construction materials of house which in the category as goods consume in fact represent investment goods to produce other; dissimilar goods.

Second I, theoretical investment of Keynes can only be done by entrepreneur big obtaining investment credit from formal banks. Formal banks of channeled choosing credit become credit consume such as credit to buy motorbike and investment credit to develop; build factory or buy factory machines.

Third G, governmental expenditure, more amount weight as governmental consumption expenditure, though outside routine expenditure to employ officer, a lot of development expenditure which must enter investment category of such as expenditure for road-works or bridge.

Role Small and Medium Industry (UKM) and Co-Op represents Biggest Investment
Economic growth of people in this time is contribution of UKM and Co-Op as one of forming effort (company) owned by owner which to strive capital by self. This effort in Indonesia represent effort perpetrator of a lot of (99%) able to permeate labor as much 88,4%, giving contribution to PDB 57,6% ( non oil and gas). Able to ride out condition which crisis (Muslimin Nasution, 2002), and quantitatively picture of condition of UKM and Co-Op is 31, 1 million unit of agricultural sector and followed with informal sector 4, 2 million unit.

Level of this role UKM is to indication that UKM represent dominant effort sector in permeating labor. Pursuant to done by survey of BPS (2000), in the period of 1999 small industries (inclusive of effort of domestic) employing 88,7% of entire labor force of Indonesia, while middle effort employ as much 10,7%. This is meaning the UKM have employed as much 99, 4% of entire labor force of Indonesia. Beside is added value of gross totalize yielded of small industries as a whole cover 41,9% of Domestics Gross Product (PDB) Indonesia in the period of 1999, while middle efforts as a whole yield 17,5% of PDB ( see also Thee Kian Wie, 2001). Thereby, added value of gross totalize yielded of UKM as a whole almost equal to 60% of PDB.

UKM and Co-Op have rendered economic improvement of society; people economics trusted have been able to hold out in face of storm of economics crisis which according to some people since five the last year non-stop to befall this nation. Many people of Indonesia which have to invest, a lot of one who open booths, effort diligence and industry minimize which to strive capital by self without service banking, and of course is not noted by bank. This matter in economics is not noted by as investment and will of investment will not come otherwise be created by climate stimulating.

Government in a few visit opportunity go out country always assure international society that Indonesia is peaceful place for the investment, hence to conducive to cultivation of foreign capital (PMA) what trusted to become governmental economic cure drug hence also offer various investment potency in Indonesia. Offering various this investment choices as if the governmental fear to make foreign investment is the solving of best for economic cure of Indonesia.

This fear constituted by reason that there are confusion in classic economics theory is which likely of opinion nations expand have never the investment able to otherwise there is foreign capital or domestic investor capable to have the investment (investor). As if only the capital owner from rich nations and go forward which with glamour ' beauty' expected to become ' benefactor goddess' economics nation this. Ought to be governmental earn to learn from economic strength of people which hold up to crisis storm, government earn to rely on economic role of people and don't exactly depend on foreign capital.

Economic theory is new classical which have been embraced by the partial; some our economist seems need revised by since this theory do not accommodate small and medium industry, this theory do not advocate economics springing up from people. Is the Economic to though base on small and medium industry have been proven able to color economics this nation.

Is obligation of all of us to realize in learning economics do not be direct to at moment's notice trust economic theory, but having to critically do research, circumstantial study to be direct to field and of course see circumstance in fact.

All our economist have to study to return relevance of the economics theory in Indonesia through positive theory is which applicative, needed to circumstantial study defend nationality economics of through economic theory really snugly with Indonesia circumstance. By is hence nation this will walk parallel straightening nation which according to him more go forward.

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